According to Rhode Island Instructions for Form RI-1040:
A Resident is an individual that is domiciled in Rhode Island or an individual that maintains a place of abode in Rhodes Island spending at least 183 days in the state.
A Nonresident is an individual that does not meet the definition of a resident or part-year resident and earned income in Rhode Island.
A Part-Year Resident is an individual that moved into or out of Rhode Island during the tax year. This does not include temporary absences.
What if one spouse is a resident and the other is not?
If a married filing joint federal return is filed and one spouse is a resident of Rhode Island and the other is not, separate returns should be filed, unless the couple elects to file a joint return and both be taxed as residents.
To file separate returns within your account, you can file the federal return and wait for the return to be accepted. Then, change the filing status for the primary taxpayer and file a separate return for the first spouse. The second spouse will need to create a new account and file the separate state return in that account (if required to file).
For more information: