According to the Kansas Instructions:
A Kansas Resident is an individual that lives in Kansas, regardless of where employed. An individual that is away from Kansas and plans to return is a resident.
A Nonresident of Kansas is and individual that did not reside in Kansas during the tax year.
A Part-Year Resident is an individual that was a resident of Kansas for less than 12 months during the tax year.
If one spouse is a resident and the other is not and a joint federal return is filed, a joint nonresident Kansas return must be filed.
For more information, see What are the filing requirements for Kansas?